Normally, a foreigner cannot obtain a permanent residence permit after staying in Japan for less than 10 years. In principle, the requirement (operational standard) for a permanent residence permit is that you must have been continuously residing in Japan for at least 10 years. However, it is possible to apply for a permanent residence permit for less than 10 years, and there are four patterns.
Spouse of a Japanese national
There are some detailed conditions, but you can apply if you have been married for at least 3 years and have lived in Japan for at least 1 year.
Spouse of a permanent resident
Same as Spouse or Child of Japanese National, but the applicant must have been married for at least 3 years and have lived in Japan for at least 1 year.
Long Term Resident
If you have lived in Japan for 5 years or more after the "Long Term Resident" status is granted, you can apply for this visa.
As of April 2017, the period of stay to obtain permanent residence for foreign Highly-Skilled Professionals is set at 1 year, the shortest in the world for those with 80 or more points on the Highly-Skilled Professional points calculation chart, and 3 years for those with 70 or more points.
In addition, when applying for PR Visa, you must also meet the requirement of "having the longest period of stay for the status of residence you currently hold," but you can apply if you have a 3-year or 5-year status of residence.